Breast Cancer Is Conquerable If Detected Early.
Breast Cancer is established as one of the nation's most formidable enemies in the healthcare landscape. It is one of the most common cancers amongst Indian women; every year as many as 100,000 women develop breast cancer in the country. This high incidence is poised to rise to an even more unmanageable number.
Early detection is the best protection against breast cancer. Regular self-examination and a mammography at regular intervals have proven to be most effective in early diagnosis and in achieving better results in treatment and cure. Apollo Hospitals has been a pioneer in introducing comprehensive screening protocols for early detection of breast cancer. A suite of preventive health checks, advanced imaging, mammography and expert diagnosis has been an Apollo hallmark. Recently, Apollo Hospitals aggregated its many years of experience and expertise in this field into the highly specialized offering - The Apollo Breast Clinic.
As a forerunner in the treatment of breast cancer, Apollo Hospitals has performed over 50,000 breast surgeries, over the past two decades. Apollo represents the amalgamation of the finest talent, latest equipment and deep expertise in combating breast cancer. The team uses the best of surgical procedures, radiation therapy, chemotherapy and hormonal therapy to deliver best-in-class outcomes.
Being diagnosed with breast cancer is a life-changing event. Access to the best doctors and treatment is the most vital step in the battle of good health.
At Apollo Hospitals the teams stand committed, helping patients conquer cancer and live a healthy and happy life.
The Apollo Cancer Team (ACT) includes dedicated breast surgeons, oncoplastic surgeons, medical oncologists, radiologists, psychologists and counsellors. Our Breast Cancer ward includes experienced nurses exclusively for patient's post-operative care; this is complemented by a comprehensive range of advanced facilities for patient care.
Prostate cancer is one of the most common types of cancers in men. It usually affects men in their 60s, but is now progressively found in men of a lower age group as well. The common problems arising in this gland include benign (non-cancerous) enlargement, or cancer of the prostate. The risk factors include older age, family history and obesity.
Prostate cancer grows slowly and initially remains confined to the organ. However, in certain cases, the growth is rapid and can spread quickly to other organs. Early detection allows patients to choose from a range of treatment options, with excellent outcomes. Treating prostate cancer requires a team of experts from Medical, Radiation, Uro-Oncology who are aligned to follow protocols of international standards.
In many cases, prostate cancer causes no symptoms till it is advanced. So periodic checks with Digital rectal exam (DRE) and the Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test are recommended. Elevated PSA levels can be an indication of cancer, infection, inflammation or non-cancerous enlargement. Transrectal Ultrasound is done for further diagnosis. The biopsied tissues are examined to evaluate the grade of prostate cancer by Gleason score. Bone scan, CT, MRI or PET CT followed with Biopsy is done to confirm the diagnosis. Men diagnosed with early stage prostate cancer may not require treatment right away. Only active surveillance is required in a few cases.
The treatment options include surgery (radical prostatectomy) or radiation therapy. Radical Prostatectomy for prostate cancer involves removing the prostate gland, some surrounding tissue and a few lymph nodes. The da Vinci Robotic Surgery System is used for surgery in some of the world's best cancer care centres. Robotic prostatectomy allows the surgeon to make more precise movements with surgical tools as compared to traditional open or minimally invasive surgery.
Radiation therapy can be delivered either by a radiation system like Novalis Tx system, the fastest in treatment speed, precision and simplicity, to accurately target tumors, or by Brachytherapy which involves placing many rice- sized radioactive seeds in the prostate tissue, delivering a low dose of radiation over a longer period of time. A few patients additionally require Hormone therapy, either for a short or long course. A holistic Oncology team approach is the best way to fight prostate cancer.
For patients with prostate cancer, Apollo's Robotic Surgical System has proven to be a highly effective and safe treatment. Robotic surgery is also used to treat tumors in the lungs, esophagus, bladder and kidneys. The procedures are performed by an efficient team of physicians who have both the training and experience in the given field.
Every year, 150 out of every million children in India get diagnosed with cancer. Leukaemia and lymphoma represent the most frequent pediatric malignancies followed by brain tumours. Bone tumours, neuroblastoma, nephroblastoma are less frequent. Brain tumours are the most common type of solid tumour in children.
Pediatric Leukaemia is the most common form of childhood cancer, and accounts for about 30% of all cancers that affect children and young adults. The number of boys presenting to cancer centres in India are far more than girls and this represents our social bias rather than a true male preponderance.
Children may present with fever, bone pain and reddish skin spots or bleeding from nose and mouth. On examination, most of them have an enlarged liver, spleen or lymph nodes. Bone pain could be indicated by a young child limping or refusing to walk. Signs of bleeding include easy bruising or small spots of blood called petechiae under the skin. Prolonged fever with no apparent cause can also be a presenting symptom. Persistent headache, vomiting, inability to walk or visual symptoms could be features of a brain tumour. A painless bony swelling that has come to light after a trivial injury is the most common presenting feature of a bone tumour. A white eye reflex is an early sign of an eye cancer called retinoblastoma.
Apollo Hospitals is a pioneer in cancer treatment and has dedicated Pediatric Oncology units with clinical expertise to manage all types of childhood cancers. Treatment in the form of chemotherapy, surgery, radiotherapy or in various combinations is used depending upon the cancer type for maximum benefit after discussion in a multidisciplinary team meeting.
Pediatric surgeons can offer minimally invasive surgery that reduces pain after the procedure, shortens the child's stay in the hospital and speeds recovery so the child can return to his or her usual daily activities as early as possible. Radiotherapy is delivered with precision and is planned carefully by a team of physicists and radiation oncologists. Small children are sedated by senior anaesthetists to help deliver care with minimum psychological trauma to a child.
At Apollo, our Pediatric neurosurgical team has tremendous amount of clinical experience and endeavours to achieve complete surgical removal of the tumour without major secondary neurologic side effects.
Our pathologists collaborate with the clinical teams and analyse tumour tissues using the latest technology available including flow cytometry and PCR based molecular assays. This approach ensures that children and young adults who do not need high doses of chemotherapy or radiation are spared the side effects of treatment whilst also making sure that patients with more aggressive cancers receive the most effective form of therapy available. Blood bank standards are of international quality and all patients receive filtered blood that has been tested using nucleic acid methods to avoid blood borne viral infections.
Our team of compassionate and competent nurses and paramedical staff ensure that the child and family receive safe and holistic care. Our patient support group is actively involved in counselling families to help them through periods of emotional crisis. Long-term follow up is part of the care to ensure that there are no late side effects of therapy in growing children.
In India each year, 150 out of every one million children are diagnosed with cancer. Cancers affecting children are of a unique kind.
Leukemia is the cancer of bone marrow and blood. It is the most common childhood cancer and accounts for about 30 % of all cancers in children. Common symptoms are bone and joint pain, fatigue, weakness, pale skin, bleeding or bruising, fever, weigh loss amongst others.
Brain and central nervous system tumors account for about 26% of childhood cancers. Headaches, nausea, vomiting, dizziness, trouble walking or handling objects are common symptoms of these cancers.
Neuroblastoma affects infants and young children and starts in the early forms of nerve cells in a developing embryo or fetus.
Wilmus tumor (nephroblastoma) starts in one or rarely both kidneys. It is most often found in children between 3 to 4 years of age.
Lymphomas starts in certain cells of the immune system called lymphocytes. They can cause weight loss, fever, sweating, tiredness and swollen lymph nodes under the skin in the neck, armpit, or groin. Rhabdomyosarcoma starts in cells that normally develop into skeletal muscles. It accounts for about 3% of childhood cancers.
Primary bone cancers (cancers that start in the bones) occur most often in older children and teens, but they can develop at any age. They account for about 3% of childhood cancers.
Leukaemia OR Blood Cancer Treatment Procedure includes chemotherapy, surgery, radiotherapy or a combination of all.
In seeking treatment for a child diagnosed with cancer, do look for the following aspects while choosing the cancer care hospital:
Acute Myelogenous Leukemia (AML) is a type of blood cancer found in the bone marrow. Bone marrow is the soft inner part of bones. In acute leukemia, the bone marrow produces immature cells that keep on building up in the body. These cells are also known as blast cells. Doctors may refer to AML as acute myelocytic leukemia, acute myelogenous leukemia, acute granulocytic leukemia, or acute non-lymphocytic leukemia.
In the early stages, Acute Myeloid Leukemia symptoms may resemble those of common flu. The symptoms may differ based on the blood cell affected. Visit the doctor if any of the following symptoms is seen:
Prolonged Fever, Lethargy and fatigue, Bone pain, Pale skin, Shortness of breath, Frequent infections, Easy bruising, Unusual nose bleeding and gum bleeding
Blood tests are done to check the red and white blood cells and platelet count. This test also helps in diagnosing the presence of blast cells in the body.
Bone marrow test is a biopsy done to confirm the diagnosis.
Lumbar puncture (spinal tap) is done to remove fluid around the lower part of the spinal cord to check for cancerous cells.
If the tests are positive, the doctor may refer the patient to an oncologist, who specializes in cancer treatments or a hematologist, who is a specialist in blood or blood-forming tissues.
Acute Myeloid Leukemia treatment depends on the subtype of the disease, overall health, age and medical preferences. Generally, the treatment is done in two stages:
Remission induction therapy is the first phase of treatment, which aims to remove leukemia cells in the blood and bone marrow. However, this therapy does not successfully remove all the cancerous cells. Further treatment is required to prevent it from returning.
Consolidation therapy is conducted after the remission therapy, which aims to eradicate the remaining leukemia cells from the body. This therapy helps in reducing the risk of relapse. Therapies used in both the phases include chemotherapy, stem cell transplantation, anti-cancer drugs and participation in suitable clinical trials.
The blood and marrow unit at Apollo offers allogeneic and autologous bone marrow transplant to children and adults with malignant and non-malignant conditions.
The diseases that are conventionally treated are:
Cancer in the lungs is common and people who smoke are at the highest risk of contracting lung cancer. The risk of lung cancer increases with the duration of smoking period and the number of cigarettes smoked. The silver lining though is that if one quits this habit even after several years, one can significantly reduce the chances of developing lung cancer.
A new cough that doesn't go away changes in a chronic cough or coughing blood even in small amount, shortness of breath, chest pain, and wheezing hoarseness, unexpected weight loss, bone pain, Headache.
Risk factors include smoking, passive smoking, exposure to radon gas, asbestos and a family history of lung cancer. People with an increased risk of lung cancer should take annual CT scans to look for the disease. Also, smokers of 55 years of age or older and even those who used to smoke earlier should check with their doctor about screening for lung cancer.
In Order To Diagnose Lung Cancer, The Doctor May Recommend:
Imaging tests: An X-ray image of your lungs may reveal an abnormal mass or nodule. A CT scan can reveal small lesions in your lungs that might not be detected in an X-ray. Sputum cytology: Observing the sputum under the microscope can sometimes reveal the presence of lung cancer cells. Tissue sample (biopsy): Lung cancer may be treated by surgery which would be either a Wedge resection, to remove a small section of the lung that contains the tumour along with a margin of healthy tissue, or Segmental resection to remove a larger portion of the lung but not the entire lobe or Lobectomy, to remove the entire lobe of one lung or a Pneumonectomy to remove an entire lung.
Chemotherapy is often used to kill cancer cells that may remain after surgery.
Radiation therapy can be directed from outside the body (external beam radiation) or it can be put inside needles, seeds or catheters and placed inside the body near the cancer (Brachytherapy).
The liver is one of the most vital organs which filter the blood coming from the digestive tract, before circulating it to the rest of the body. It detoxifies chemicals and metabolizes drugs. The liver also synthesizes proteins required for blood clotting and other functions.
The liver can be affected either by primary liver cancer which arises in the liver, or secondary or metastatic cancer, which originates elsewhere in the body. Primary liver cancer tends to occur when the liver is damaged in the form of cirrhosis (a scarring condition of the liver), certain birth defects, alcohol abuse, chronic infection with diseases such as hepatitis B and C, hemochromatosis, obesity and fatty liver disease amongst others.
A hard lump on the right side just below the rib cage, Swollen abdomen and discomfort in the upper abdomen (right side) Pain near the right shoulder blade or in the back, Jaundice, Easy bruising or bleeding, Unusual tiredness, Nausea and vomiting, Loss of appetite, Weight loss for no reason
Having any of these symptoms does not mean it is cancer, but if one or more of them is noticed for more than 2 weeks, then a doctor must be seen and an immediate health screening is a must.
The diagnosis of liver cancer includes physical examination and history, serum tumor marker test, liver function test, CT scan and MRI. Biopsy is done along with laparoscopy to confirm the diagnosis.
Liver cancer as staged by Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC) staging system is :
Treatment of stages 0, A and B includes partial hepatectomy, total hepatectomy and liver transplant. The tumor can be ablated using radio frequency ablation, microwave therapy, percutaneous ethanol injection and cryoablation. Treatment of stages C and D includes embolization therapy and is performed by using either transarterial chemoembolization (TACE), Radio Frequency Ablation (RFA), Transarterial Radioembolization or external beam radiotherapy with high dose focused conformal technology (e.g. cyberknife) methods.
Liver Cancer is completely curable if detected early. Liver cirrhosis and viral hepatitis can be detected early by regular health screenings. An integrated approach of a multidisciplinary team is the best way to conquer liver cancer.
Head and Neck Cancers make up almost 30% of cancers among Indians. The major culprits are chewing tobacco, betel nut, paan, smoking cigarettes and consuming excessive alcohol. Another risk factor is an infection with the HPV which increases the risk of throat cancer.
A sore in the mouth that has not healed for more than 3 weeksPersistent change of voiceDifficulty in chewing and swallowingA lump in the neckBleeding, pain or numbness in the nose or mouthDifficulty in opening the mouthFacial, neck or ear pain.
Having any of these symptoms does not mean you have cancer, but if you notice one or more of them for more than two weeks, please see your doctor and go in for an immediate health screening.
At first, ideally, a comprehensive personalized care plan should be drawn up for each individual patient after the cancer is diagnosed. Surgery, radiotherapy, chemotherapy or a combination could be used, depending upon the type, site and size of the tumor. This approach is what the best centres in the world use and it has been scientifically proven to produce the best results. Radiation is delivered using theNovalis Tx system, the fastest in treatment speed, precision and simplicity, to accurately target tumors. In addition, if needed minimally invasive surgery techniques such as Trans Oral Laser Surgery and Trans Oral Robotic Surgery (TORS) using the Da Vinci Robotic surgery system, are used.
Head and Neck Cancer can be prevented and cured if detected early. While treating though, the challenge lies in maintaining a fine balance between complete cancer clearances and making sure that the patient does not lose the ability to speak, swallow and breathe or a gross distortion of facial features. Highly skilled Reconstructive Surgeons use a microsurgery technique that uses miniaturized surgical instruments and a microscope to connect blood vessels in the leg bone (fibula) to blood vessels in the neck. Similarly, surgeons can use skin and muscle from a patient's thigh, hand or intestine to replace part of the neck, tongue, and throat. The Oncology Team's approach should ensure not only cure but also the maintenance of appearance and quality of life.
We offer a personal touch to all our patients to make sure their journey of getting back their health is smoother and easier with us. Our incredibly skilled team of doctors and caregivers walk with you at every step of the treatment and give you the support you need.
Priyesh Tayal, a 10th class student was diagnosed with blood cancer at Apollo Hospital Delhi, where he underwent treatment. Priyesh became an example for all of us when despite his medical condition, he performed exceptionally and scored 96% marks in his board exams. He is now recovering well, with his courage and determination."
Indraprastha Apollo Hospitals,
Sarita Vihar, New Delhi - 110076
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